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From Farm To Fabric: The Many Faces Of Cotton - The 74th Plenary Meeting of the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC)
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Textile News

New Dyestuffs Improve Palettes

Customer demands for higher standards drive new developments in dyeing technology.

Textile manufacturers are constantly looking for more economical ways to run their plants and produce their products. However, the standards are becoming higher high fixation, good wash-off properties and lower environmental impact are all becoming increasingly important. Improved light- and washfastness are the result of customer demands especially from the automotive industry.Improved communication and globalization of companies require the quality of products to be the same anywhere in the world. Sourcing is changing at the speed of light. Apparel bottoms sourced in Kenya must match knit tops sourced around the world. New Dyes: Fiber-ReactiveCiba Specialty Chemicals, Switzerland, now has three complete dye ranges for fiber-reactive exhaust dyeing: the Cibacron® FN range for warm dyeing; the Cibacron LS range to reduce the amount of salt needed in dyeing; and the Cibacron H range for hot dyeing. New products include dyes for black formulations that offer versatility and a more economical choice:Cibacron Orange ROE; andCibacron Brown DER.Also new are two greens that offer better shade consistency and quality of dyeing. These products produce fewer variations within dye lots:Cibacron Green FN-BL; andCibacron Green H-BL.New products in the Cibacron H range include:Cibacron Yellow H-G;Cibacron Orange H-R; andCibacron Red H-F. Cationic DyesGermany-based DyStar L.P. has introduced a new physical form of cationic dyes that are flowable powders. Designated Astrazon® Micro, they are designed for dry dye dispensers. Conventional powders can cause problems with dusting, bridging and static build-up on silo sides. Disperse DyesAnother important trend in the market is the need for improved washfastness, particularly in polyester, polyester/cotton blends and polyester/spandex. To meet this trend, Ciba has introduced the Terasil® W disperse dye range. New products in this range include:Terasil Red W-FS;Terasil Black W-NS; and Terasil Navy W-RS.Other products will be introduced next year to expand the Terasil W range. The products in this range are used in continuous, package and exhaust dyeing.Ciba has also introduced a new liquid range for automotive applications. The Ciba Terasil range is made up of stable liquid formulations that give exceptional lightfastness. Included in this range are:Terasil Blue HL-B, LIQ 75 percent;Terasil Pink 2GLA, LIQ 50 percent;Terasil Blue BGE, LIQ 50 percent;Terasil Yellow GWL, LIQ 50 percent;Terasil Violet PX-BL, LIQ 75 percent; and Terasil Yellow HL-G, LIQ 40 percent.Also from Ciba are the Terasil C dyes engineered for continuous and exhaust dyeing for carpets. These products exhibit excellent leveling and shade repeatability:Terasil Yellow CR;Terasil Blue C3R; andTerasil Red CB.Switzerland-based Clariant will announce availability of a new line of high wetfastness disperse dyes: Foron Navy SWF, Black SWF, Rubine SWF and Yellow Brown SWF. A new line of alkaline-clearable disperse dyes with excellent washfastness includes Foron Navy SAC, Black SAC, Rubine SAC and Yellow Brown SAC.DyStar has introduced the Optidye series of computer programs in partnership with selected customers such as Burke Mills, Valdese, N.C., the first polyester-yarn-dye operation in the country to use Optidye P. There are currently four versions covering polyester, nylon, acrylic and wool dyeing. The programs use fiber, auxiliary and equipment data to recommend dyeing procedures for individual shades. The program gives the shortest, safest time/temperature profile possible. By reducing cycle times without compromising reproducibility, it has been proven to maximize dyehouse profitability. The program is the product of more than 30 years of continuous improvement at Bayer and DyStar in the development of such expert systems. PigmentsDyStar has introduced a line of high-lightfastness pigments under the Imperon® HF label. These pigments offer in the order of 500 hours in pastel shades. They are also stable to shade changes that can occur during binder curing. Sulfur DyesClariant has available a new sulfur black Diresul Blue Black RDT-2B with a blue cast that offers greater versatility in matching black shades on cellulose. Auxiliary ChemicalsLeveling and migration are important aspects of exhaust dyeing. Yorkshire Americas, Charlotte, N.C., has a new leveler/migration aid for disperse dyeing of polyester. PatLev PL has the same migration enhancement and strike rate control as PatLev DDL-LO for todays low liquor ratio machines.Afterclearing improves the wet-fastness of disperse dyes. Yorkshire Americas Intratex MSB is intended as a replacement for a caustic/hydro afterclear. It has also been used to remove spots and deposits from deep shades dyed at low liquor ratio. Often these goods have a bronzy surface appearance. Intratex MSB cleans the surface to give a deeper, richer shade. Significant DevelopmentsClariant reports one significant update in the field of dyeing Fadex ECS: UV-Absorber for polyester fabrics. This product provides very high sublimation fastness and can be applied by package and beam dyeing. The product is mainly used for automotive fabrics. Currently available products, which are applied mainly by means of package dyeing, provide significantly less sublimation and fogging. Dosing SystemsThe VaryFlow system from United Kingdom-based Kinder International Systems Ltd. offers solutions for dye-dispensing headaches. The VaryFlow system proportionally controls the pneumatic dispensing valve. The valve can be on, off, or anywhere in between the on/off state. This allows the dispensing system to determine the optimum flow rate for the required quantity of dye.The VaryFlow system allows a single valve to dispense from grams to tens of kilograms of dye because the flow rate can be adjusted from as low as 1 gram per second (g/s) to more than 1,000 g/s. The system is impervious to fluctuations in the ingredient supply pressure, and because small orifice valves arent necessary, valve blockages are eliminated. Kinder claims that a customer can save money and achieve greater reliability by using the VaryFlow system. Dye Machines
The Millennium by Mount Holly, N.C.-based Gaston County Dyeing Machine Co. continues to offer great versatility. Fabrics handled include tricot/raschel; spandex (elastane) blends; athletic wear; wovens; and specialty fabrics.Specialty fabrics processed now include: cotton jersey; polyester microfiber suede; athletic wear mesh; thermal knit; satin; chenille woven; crepe; poplin; fleece; high-stretch woven; micro-sanded twill; nonwoven; polyester/rayon twill; polyester/cotton cuffs and collars; cotton/spandex jersey; nylon flock; and spandex knit.Since the machine was introduced in 1999, the chamber size has increased, thereby increasing the load per port. Trial data run over the past two years have shown the capacity to run up to 518 pounds per port.The major advances continue to be the incorporation of support for the dye machine. The Millennium Dyeing System consists of an interconnected system from the control center to the dye machines with a central charge tank, to the automated weighing, dye dissolving and automatic chemical dispensing.Jet-dyeing technology has taken many directions over the past 10 years, and Sclavos S.A., Greece, has always looked to the most pressing needs of the customer to bring forth technology that addresses both the short-term and long-term needs. The TwinSoft Flow, along with the AquaChron rinsing system, addre-ssed quality and cost issues. Water, steam and energy continue to represent major costs that impact the profitability of any operation in the United States or around the world.The Sclavos Venus has several features. The use of a specially designed pump claims to reduce energy consumption by 30 to 40 percent. The use of the AquaChron allows continuous rinsing and a reduction in total water consumed. A heat exchanger saves the waste energy and preheats incoming wash water. Sclavos claims that a customer dyeing 300,000 pounds per week will save more than $750,000 a year using Sclavos technology when compared to conventional machines.Germany-based Thies GmbHandCo. Luft-roto plus jet-dye machine and DyStar textile dyes have partnered to introduce a new short cotton dyeing system with very low 3.5:1 liquor ratio. The previous state-of-the-art process of the Thies eco-soft plus machine required a liquor ratio of 6:1 and a cycle time of 286 minutes. The new procedure runs in 189 minutes. The new process therefore requires less thermal energy, less electrical energy and no cooling water. The new procedure calls for a five-minute high-temperature bleach, and a combined cooling rinse and dye cycle, in which dye and half the salt are added first, followed by alkali and the rest of the salt. The dye solution enters the venturi and uses a patent-pending technique for positive liquor exchange. 
Research IdeasSee Dyeing, PrintingandFinishing, TI, this issue, for some of the latest ongoing wet-processing research at North Carolina State University.

October 2001